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Esmeralda County Nevada Exploration Guide

Esmeralda County Nevada

Esmeralda County Nevada Overview

Welcome to Esmeralda County, Nevada, a captivating destination nestled in the heart of the American Southwest. With its rugged mountains, sprawling deserts, and picturesque valleys, this county is a paradise for outdoor enthusiasts. Immerse yourself in the natural beauty of Death Valley National Park, where you can hike through canyons, camp under a starlit sky, and witness breathtaking sunsets. Seek adventure as you conquer Boundary Peak, the highest point in Nevada, offering panoramic views that will leave you in awe. Explore the vast wilderness, spot diverse wildlife, and indulge in the thrill of stargazing in this haven for nature lovers. Embark on an unforgettable journey through Esmeralda County, where outdoor adventures abound and unforgettable experiences await.

Esmeralda County in Nevada is a hidden gem for those seeking to immerse themselves in the wonders of the great outdoors. From its rugged mountains to vast desert expanses and picturesque valleys, this county boasts a diverse and breathtaking natural beauty that is waiting to be discovered.

One of the highlights of exploring Esmeralda County is the opportunity to visit Death Valley National Park. Extending into the eastern portions of the county, this iconic national park showcases some of the most awe-inspiring landscapes on Earth. Marvel at the vast salt flats of Badwater Basin, the lowest point in North America, or hike through the stunning golden dunes of Mesquite Flat. Experience the dramatic canyons, colorful rock formations, and unique flora and fauna that make Death Valley a true natural wonder.

For those seeking adventure and a touch of wilderness, the Boundary Peak Wilderness is a must-visit. Situated along the eastern border of Esmeralda County, this designated wilderness area within the Inyo National Forest offers an escape into pristine alpine landscapes. Lace up your hiking boots and challenge yourself to conquer Boundary Peak, the highest point in Nevada, while enjoying breathtaking views of the surrounding mountain ranges and alpine lakes.

Esmeralda County also holds hidden gems for nature enthusiasts. Discover the serene and picturesque Diana’s Punch Bowl, a natural spring near Goldfield that forms a captivating turquoise pool surrounded by unique rock formations. 

Furthermore, the county’s vast desert expanses offer ample opportunities for exploration. Embark on off-the-beaten-path adventures in the Silver Peak Range or the Inyo Mountains, where you can create your own hiking routes, discover hidden canyons, and encounter the unique desert flora and fauna that thrive in this arid landscape.

As you venture through Esmeralda County’s natural beauty, be sure to keep an eye out for the diverse wildlife that calls this region home. Spot soaring birds of prey, encounter elusive desert reptiles, and maybe even catch a glimpse of a pronghorn antelope gracefully roaming the plains.

Whether you seek serenity in the desert, the thrill of conquering mountains, or the sheer awe of dramatic landscapes, Esmeralda County has something for every nature lover. Immerse yourself in the natural beauty that abounds and create unforgettable memories as you explore the hidden treasures of this remarkable county.

Year Established/Founded


Esmeralda County, Nevada, has a fascinating history that traces back to its founding and the origins of its name. The county was established on November 25, 1861, during the height of the Comstock Lode mining boom in neighboring Virginia City. At the time, the area that now comprises Esmeralda County was part of Nye County. However, due to the significant growth and economic importance of the mining district, it was separated to form its own county.

The county was named after the Spanish word “Esmeralda,” which means emerald. The name was chosen due to the discovery of vast deposits of greenish-colored ores in the region. These ores, resembling the precious gemstone emerald, sparked excitement among prospectors and miners who flocked to the area in search of riches.

Esmeralda County quickly became a hub for mining activities during the mid-19th century. It was home to numerous mining camps and towns that sprang up in the wake of valuable mineral discoveries. Gold, silver, copper, and other minerals were extracted from the mines, attracting a diverse population of miners, entrepreneurs, and adventurers from around the world.

The county’s mining boom continued throughout the late 19th century, with several prosperous mining towns emerging, such as Goldfield and Silver Peak. These towns were characterized by bustling streets, grand buildings, and a vibrant social scene. However, as the mining industry declined in the early 20th century, many of these towns faced a gradual decline and eventually became ghost towns, leaving behind captivating remnants of their once-thriving past.

Today, Esmeralda County stands as a testament to its rich mining heritage and serves as a gateway to exploring the captivating history of the American West. Its name, Esmeralda, carries the legacy of the precious minerals that lured prospectors and shaped the destiny of this unique region.


This timeline provides a snapshot of the county’s history, highlighting significant moments in its establishment, mining booms, architectural development, and the subsequent decline of the mining industry.

  • 1861: The county was established from part of Nye County, and the first county seat was located in Ione.
  • 1870s: The discovery of silver in the region leads to a mining boom in Esmeralda County, attracting a growing population of miners and settlers.
  • 1902: Goldfield, one of the most significant mining towns in Esmeralda County, experiences a major gold rush, leading to rapid growth and prosperity.
  • 1905: Rhyolite, a prominent mining town in neighboring Nye County, experiences a short-lived boom, which indirectly impacts the economy and development of Esmeralda County.
  • 1907: The Goldfield High School, an impressive example of classical revival architecture, is constructed in Goldfield, symbolizing the town’s prosperity and commitment to education.
  • Early 1900s: Esmeralda County becomes known for its rich mineral deposits, including gold, silver, and other precious metals, attracting miners and investors from around the world.
  • Late 1900s: The mining industry in Esmeralda County declines, leading to a gradual decline in population and the abandonment of several mining towns.
  • Present: Esmeralda County continues to embrace its mining heritage and attract visitors interested in exploring the region’s ghost towns, historic sites, and natural beauty. 

Things to Do in Esmeralda County Nevada

Internation Car Forest

The International Car Forest of the Last Church, located in Goldfield, Nevada, is a unique and eccentric art installation that has become a must-visit attraction for travelers seeking offbeat experiences. Created by artists Michael “Mark” Rippie and Chad Sorg, this extraordinary automotive graveyard features over 40 cars and trucks planted nose-first into the ground at various angles, resembling a forest of vehicles frozen in time.

Learn more about the International Car Forest.

Goldfield High School

Constructed in 1907, Goldfield High School is an impressive example of classical revival architecture. It served as an educational institution for the community and stands as a symbol of the town’s prosperous past.

Goldfield Hotel

The Goldfield Hotel is a historic hotel that was once known for its luxury and grandeur during the gold mining boom. It now stands as an iconic landmark and is a subject of intrigue and local legends.

Santa Fe Saloon

This historic saloon in Goldfield is a well-preserved example of an Old West drinking establishment. It offers a glimpse into the social and cultural life of the town during its heyday.

Ghost Towns in Esmeralda County Nevada

These ghost towns within Esmeralda County offer a glimpse into the vibrant mining history that once shaped the region, allowing visitors to step back in time and imagine the bustling communities that thrived during the mining boom.

Below are the mining districts, railroad sidings, and ghost towns in Esmeralda County, Nevada.

  1. Alkali
  2. Alum
  3. Argentite
  4. Arlemont
  5. Benton
  6. Blair – Situated in the Bullfrog Hills, Blair was a mining town that flourished during the early 1900s. Visitors can discover the remnants of its former glory, including old mine shafts and foundations.
  7. Blair Junction – Blair Junction was a mining community that served as a transportation hub during the mining boom. While little remains of the town today, its historical significance adds to the allure of exploring Esmeralda County’s ghost towns.
  8. Bullfrog
  9. Calmville
  10. Candelaria District – Although the majority of the Candelaria District is located in Mineral County, a portion of it extends into Esmeralda County. This district was known for its rich silver deposits and was active during the late 1800s and early 1900s.
  11. Carrara
  12. Coaldale
  13. Columbia
  14. Columbus – Located near the California border, Columbus was a mining town that experienced a short-lived boom during the early 1900s. Today, visitors can explore the remains of its buildings and mining equipment.
  15. Crow Spring
  16. Cuprite
  17. Diamondfield
  18. Fish Lake Valley
  19. Gilbert – A town 25 miles west of Tonopah and east of Monte Cristo Range settled in 1925. Named for the three Gilbert brothers who were prospectors.
  20. Goldfield – A town settled in 1903 in the eastern part of the county discovered in 1902 and named for the great gold discovery. Once a booming gold mining town, Goldfield is now a well-preserved ghost town with several historic buildings and landmarks.
  21. Gold Point
  22. Gold Hitt
  23. Gold Mountain – A mining district on the flank of a peak of the same name 20 miles southeast of Linda Valley that was named because of gold nuggets found there in the early days.
  24. Gold Point
  25. Gold Reef
  26. Hornsilver
  27. Klondike 
  28. Lida– Lida was a small mining and ranching community in Esmeralda County. While it is no longer inhabited, remnants of its buildings and the historic Lida Schoolhouse can still be seen.
  29. Lime Point
  30. McLeans
  31. Millers – A town and mining district 14 miles northwest of Tonopah.
  32. Montgomery City
  33. Montezuma – Once a bustling silver mining town, Montezuma is now a ghost town with remnants of buildings and mining structures that offer a glimpse into its past.
  34. Nivlock
  35. Oriental
  36. Palmetto – Palmetto was a silver mining town that saw its heyday in the late 1800s. Today, visitors can explore the remains of its buildings and mining infrastructure, including the Palmetto Cemetery.
  37. Phillipsburg
  38. Pigeon Springs
  39. Red Rock Mine
  40. Royston
  41. Silver Peak– Located in the southwestern part of Esmeralda County, the Silver Peak District is known for its silver mining activities. It was a prominent silver-producing area during the late 1800s and early 1900s.
  42. Stateline
  43. Stonewall
  44. Sylvania – Situated in the southern part of Esmeralda County, Sylvania was a silver mining town that operated intermittently during the late 1800s and early 1900s. The town is now abandoned, but the ruins of its structures and mine workings can still be found.
  45. Sylvania Mining District
  46. Tokop
  47. Tule Canyon
  48. Weepah

Historical Points of Interest in Esmeralda County Nevada

Esmeralda County, Nevada, is home to several fascinating historical points of interest. Here are some notable sites that offer insights into the county’s rich history:

National Register of Historic Places

Goldfield Historic District: This district encompasses the historic core of the town of Goldfield and includes numerous buildings and structures that reflect the town’s boomtown architecture and mining history.

Nevada Historical Markers in Esmeralda County Nevada

Esmeralda County is home to eighteen Nevada Historical Markers.

As we visit each we will link the articles below for you to learn more about the history of the site the marker represents.

Click here to view all of our articles related to Esmeralda County, Nevada.

  1. #14 Goldfield – Located in the town of Goldfield, this district showcases the remnants of the once-booming gold mining town. Visitors can explore historic buildings, such as the Goldfield Hotel, the Esmeralda County Courthouse, and the Santa Fe Saloon.
  2. #20 Columbus
  3. #101 Millers
  4. #133 Fish Lake Valley
  5. 3155 Silver Peak
  6. #156 Gold Point
  7. #157 Lida
  8. #158 Palmetto
  9. #174 Blair
  10. #242 Southern Nevada Consolidated Telephone-Telegraph Company Building

Hiking in Esmeralda County Nevada

While Esmeralda County offers a rugged and picturesque landscape, it is known more for its vast open spaces and natural beauty than established hiking trails. However, there are still opportunities for outdoor enthusiasts to explore the county’s pristine surroundings.

It is important to note that hiking in Esmeralda County requires careful planning, adequate preparation, and adherence to safety guidelines. Visitors should be self-sufficient, carry necessary supplies, and be aware of the challenges posed by remote and arid environments. It is recommended to consult with local authorities or experienced hikers familiar with the area for more specific guidance and information on hiking opportunities in Esmeralda County.

Here are a few notable hiking areas in Esmeralda County:

  1. Boundary Peak: Located on the border of Esmeralda County and California, Boundary Peak is the highest point in Nevada. Hiking to the summit provides stunning panoramic views of the surrounding mountains and valleys.
  2. Silver Peak Range: The Silver Peak Range offers opportunities for off-trail exploration and hiking. With its rugged terrain and diverse desert flora, hikers can create their own routes and enjoy the solitude of the desert landscape.
  3. White Mountains: Situated on the eastern side of Esmeralda County, the White Mountains provide ample hiking possibilities. While there are no designated trails, adventurers can explore the range and enjoy its scenic beauty.
  4. Inyo Mountains: Located on the western border of Esmeralda County, the Inyo Mountains offer a variety of terrain for hiking. With its canyons, peaks, and desert landscapes, this area provides ample opportunities for exploration.

Natural Springs in Nye County Nevada

Natural Springs

Welcome to the hidden wonders of Esmeralda County, Nevada, where nature’s miracles abound in the form of enchanting natural springs and captivating water landforms. Nestled amidst the rugged beauty of the Silver State, this county is a true oasis for those seeking respite and rejuvenation. From the bubbling hot springs that offer therapeutic relaxation to the mesmerizing canyons carved by ancient waterways, Esmeralda County beckons adventurers to immerse themselves in its aquatic treasures. Join us on a journey of exploration as we unveil the mesmerizing allure of these natural springs and water landforms, where tranquility and awe-inspiring beauty harmoniously converge.

Esmeralda County, Nevada, is home to several natural springs and hot springs, offering opportunities for relaxation, rejuvenation, and immersion in the area’s natural beauty.

  • Alkali Flat Hot Spring
  • Diana’s Baths: Another natural spring in Esmeralda County, Diana’s Baths features a series of cascading pools formed by the flowing water. It is an enchanting spot to relax and enjoy the tranquil ambiance.
  • Diana’s Punch Bowl: Located near Goldfield, Diana’s Punch Bowl is a natural spring that forms a beautiful, turquoise-colored pool surrounded by rock formations. It is a popular spot for enjoying the tranquil surroundings.
  • Fish Lake Valley Hot Springs: Situated in Fish Lake Valley, these natural hot springs offer a soothing and therapeutic experience. Visitors can enjoy the warm mineral-rich waters while taking in the scenic views of the surrounding mountains.
  • Spencer Hot Springs: Located in the northern part of Esmeralda County, Spencer Hot Springs is a series of hot spring pools nestled in a picturesque desert setting. The pools vary in temperature, allowing visitors to find their preferred level of warmth.
  • Tolicha Peak Hot Springs: Situated in the southern part of the county, Tolicha Peak Hot Springs offers a remote and secluded soaking experience. Surrounded by breathtaking desert landscapes, it is a perfect spot for relaxation and stargazing.

Click here to learn more about Nevada Swimming Holes and Hot Springs in Nevada.

Please note that natural springs and hot springs can vary in accessibility, temperature, and conditions. It is always advisable to check with local authorities or research specific locations for up-to-date information on access, safety, and any regulations or guidelines in place.

Protected Areas

Esmeralda County, Nevada, is home to several national protected areas that preserve and protect the region’s unique natural and cultural resources. These areas offer opportunities for outdoor recreation, conservation, and the appreciation of the county’s natural beauty. Here are some notable national protected areas near Esmeralda County:

  • Ash Meadows National Wildlife Refuge: Situated southwest of Esmeralda County, Ash Meadows National Wildlife Refuge is a protected area managed by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service. It encompasses a unique desert oasis with a variety of springs, wetlands, and endemic plant and animal species. Visitors can explore boardwalks and trails to observe rare fish, birds, and plant communities found nowhere else in the world.
  • Boundary Peak Wilderness is a designated wilderness area located along the eastern border of Esmeralda County, Nevada. Managed by the U.S. Forest Service as part of the Inyo National Forest, this wilderness area encompasses approximately 10,000 acres of rugged and pristine alpine landscapes.
  • Death Valley National Park: Although primarily located in California, Death Valley National Park extends into eastern portions of Esmeralda County. It is the largest national park in the contiguous United States and showcases a diverse range of desert landscapes, including salt flats, sand dunes, canyons, and rugged mountains. The park offers numerous recreational activities, such as hiking, camping, and stargazing, and is renowned for its extreme climate and unique geological formations.
  • Inyo National Forest: Located adjacent to Esmeralda County, the Inyo National Forest is part of the U.S. Forest Service’s national forest system. It offers diverse recreational opportunities, including hiking, fishing, camping, and wildlife viewing. The forest features stunning mountain landscapes, including the eastern Sierra Nevada and White Mountains, providing a beautiful backdrop for outdoor adventures.

These national protected areas contribute to the preservation of Esmeralda County’s natural heritage, ensuring the conservation of unique ecosystems, landscapes, and cultural resources. Visitors have the opportunity to explore and appreciate the natural wonders of these areas, engage in outdoor activities, and gain a deeper understanding of the county’s ecological significance.

Notable Historical Figures in County Nevada

These notable historical figures contributed to the development, politics, and mining history of Esmeralda County and left their mark on the region’s past. Their stories and legacies provide insights into the dynamic and colorful history of the area.

  • Tasker L. Oddie (1870-1950): Tasker L. Oddie was a prominent figure in Nevada’s political history. He served as the Governor of Nevada from 1911 to 1915 and was instrumental in advocating for progressive reforms during his tenure. Oddie was also involved in mining and business ventures in Esmeralda County.
  • George S. Nixon (1860-1912): George S. Nixon was a prominent Nevada businessman and politician. He served as a United States Senator from Nevada from 1905 until his death in 1912. Nixon had significant interests in mining operations, including those in Esmeralda County.
  • Francis Marion “Borax” Smith (1846-1931): Francis Marion “Borax” Smith was a businessman and entrepreneur known for his involvement in the borax industry. He played a vital role in the development of the Harmony Borax Works in Death Valley, which had economic ties to nearby areas, including Esmeralda County.
  • George Graham Rice (1870-1943): George Graham Rice was a colorful and controversial figure in the mining industry during the early 20th century. He was involved in several mining schemes and promotions in Esmeralda County, including the infamous Rice-Bolton scheme, which involved fraudulent mining claims.
  • John S. Cook (1839-1915): John S. Cook was a pioneer and early settler in the Goldfield area. He played a crucial role in the development of Goldfield during the gold rush era and served as the first mayor of the town.
  • Mary Marsh (1853-1939): Mary Marsh was a prominent businesswoman and civic leader in Goldfield. She owned and operated a successful hotel and played an active role in the social and cultural development of the community.

Cemeteries in Esmeralda County Nevada

These older cemeteries offer a glimpse into the county’s history, providing a solemn reminder of the individuals who contributed to the development of Esmeralda County. They serve as important cultural and historical sites, preserving the memory of those who lived and worked in the region.

  • Goldfield Cemetery: Located in Goldfield, the Goldfield Cemetery is one of the oldest and most significant cemeteries in the county. It dates back to the early 1900s and holds the final resting place of many early residents and miners of the town.
  • Palmetto Cemetery: Situated in the ghost town of Palmetto, the Palmetto Cemetery is an older cemetery that serves as a reminder of the area’s mining past. It contains the graves of early residents and miners from the late 1800s.
  • Rhyolite Cemetery: Although primarily located in Nye County, the Rhyolite Cemetery extends into the eastern part of Esmeralda County. It is the final resting place for individuals associated with the former mining town of Rhyolite, which experienced a short-lived boom in the early 1900s.
  • Silver Peak Cemetery: Situated in Silver Peak, the Silver Peak Cemetery is an older cemetery that has served the community for many decades. It provides a peaceful and historic setting for honoring the deceased.

Towns in Nye County Nevada

These towns and cities offer a glimpse into the diverse communities that have existed in Esmeralda County throughout its history. From the once-thriving mining town of Goldfield to the small but vibrant communities like Silver Peak and Dyer, each place has its own unique character and contributes to the rich tapestry of the county.

Below are the unincorporated towns and communities:

  1. Blair Junction
  2. Candelaria (partially in Mineral County)
  3. Dyer
  4. Goldfield
  5. Gold Point (partially in Nye County)
  6. Lida Junction
  7. Mina (partially in Mineral County)
  8. Silver Peak
  9. Silver Peak Station
  10. Tonopah Junction

Adjacent Counties


  • Interstate 11 (Future)
  • U.S. Route 6
  • U.S. Route 95
  • State Route 264
  • State Route 265
  • State Route 266
  • State Route 267
  • State Route 773
  • State Route 774

Esmeralda County Nevada

Daniel Schieberl

Tuesday 4th of June 2024

Is there a detailed map of the area available?