Skip to Content

What is a Boreal Toad (Anaxyrus boreas)

The Boreal Toad, a resilient amphibian of the northern forests and mountains, is a critical component of its ecosystem. With its distinctive markings and cold-tolerant nature, this toad is an important indicator of environmental health.

Boreal Toad Overview

This toad species is known for its adaptability to harsh climates and its role in controlling insect populations. The Boreal Toad is a testament to the resilience of wildlife in challenging habitats.


  • Kingdom: Animalia
  • Phylum: Chordata
  • Class: Amphibia
  • Order: Anura
  • Family: Bufonidae
  • Genus: Anaxyrus
  • Species: A. boreas

Size and Body Description

Boreal Toads typically measure 2 to 5 inches in length. They have a stocky build, dry and warty skin, and vary in color from greenish, brownish, to gray. Notable are the dark spots with light-colored centers on their back.


2 to 5 inches (5 to 12.7 cm) in length.


Their diet mainly consists of insects, worms, and other small invertebrates. They are voracious eaters and play a significant role in controlling pest populations.


Boreal Toads breed in shallow water, where females lay strings of eggs that are fertilized externally by males. As amphibians, they do not engage in pollination.


They are native to the northern Rocky Mountains, the Pacific Northwest, and parts of Canada. Their range extends from Alaska down through the western United States.

Where Found

Boreal Toads are typically found in a variety of habitats, including forests, meadows, and alpine regions. They prefer moist environments with access to breeding ponds or streams.

How Long Do Boreal Toads Live

In the wild, they can live for about 10-15 years, depending on environmental conditions.


The Boreal Toad is facing threats from habitat loss, climate change, and diseases like chytridiomycosis. Some populations are considered endangered or threatened, prompting conservation efforts focused on habitat protection and disease management.

The Boreal Toad, a hardy survivor of rugged environments, plays a vital role in maintaining the balance of its ecosystem. Efforts to protect this species contribute to the overall health and diversity of the habitats they occupy.